31. March 2015 · Comments Off on Yost on Drinking at Games: Inconceivable! · Categories: 2015 · Tags: , , , , , ,

On eBay right now, this –> a series of football ticket applications from the early 1930s, with one including this message from #1000SSS from The Grand Old Man himself:

Yost and drinkers

This wasn’t the only time that Yost spearheaded a message on the ills of drinking at games during this era.  Back in 2008 I noted this cartoon that appears in the 1934 yearbook:

drunkWhile we know folks found a way to drink during Prohibition, the law ended with ratification of the 21st Amendment on December 5, 1933.  That said, Michigan state law approved the sale of 3.2 percent alcohol earlier that year and I’m sure more than a few bottles of the good stuff found their way to and through the gates of Michigan Stadium.


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image[Ed October 20, 2014.  In honor of the 80th anniversary of the Michigan-Georgia Tech game played on October 20, 1934, a repost on the campus protests leading up to this low point in Michigan football lore.  Original posted April 2009.]

The early 1930s are a fascinating stretch in Michigan football history and I’ve written much on the highs and lows of that period in eBay Watch and elsewhere.  A relative recently asked me which story from Michigan history was the most interesting to me, and the first thing that came to mind was the Willis Ward incident of 1934.  I’ve hit on it in Hail to the Victors 2008, in a few posts here, in a guest post on mgoblog, and even on WTKA radio with John U. Bacon.

This week an eBay auction got me thinking about the incident once again.  A seller is offering a pic of Ward (above) which is described to be an original wire photo.  The bidding started at $9.75.

Here’s a quick debrief on the controversy leading up to the game with Georgia Tech, as summarized in my mgo-guest post from earlier this year:

During the miserable 1934 season, controversy erupted prior to the scheduled game against Georgia Tech as the Yellow Jacket officials made it clear they would not take the field against a black player.  Protests ensued on campus and within the team (it’s rumored that [Gerald] Ford threatened to quit).  I’ve read that future famous playwright Arthur Miller, who was on the Daily staff at the time, tried to intervene.   Eventually the game was played without Ward and resulted in a 9-2 Michigan win.  [For more, here’s a Daily article from 1999, and Ward’s Wikipedia page.]

One correction:  I don’t think Miller was on the Daily staff in 1934 (he’s not listed on the directory in the ‘34 paper) although he did write for the Daily during his stay at Michigan and apparently did try to intervene with the Georgia Tech players.   Ward’s Wikipedia entry cites a story from a Miller biography explaining the future playwright’s role in the drama:

In his biography of Miller, Enoch Brater noted that Miller had friends from Arkansas who knew one of the Georgia Tech players. Brater described Miller’s involvement this way: “Remmel [Miller’s friend from Arkansas] took Miller with them to meet with members of the team, to protest but also to appeal to the athletes’ sense of fair play. ‘Miller was right in the middle of this’, Remmel recalls. Not only did the visiting team rebuff ‘the Yankee’ Miller ‘in salty language’, but they told him they would actually kill Ward if he set one foot on the Michigan gridiron. ‘The Georgia Tech team was wild.’ Miller was furious. He ‘went immediately to the office of the Michigan Daily and wrote an article about it, but it was not published.’

It’s a fascinating story and as I mentioned as an mgo-guest, it deserves a full documentary or movie.  One of the reasons I don’t think it’s been talked about very much is that the events didn’t exactly put Georgia Tech or Michigan in a favorable light, as Ward didn’t play in the game.**

The Protests
Despite mentioning the story in a few places, I really haven’t taken a deep dive.  I recently stopped by the Bentley Library and looked through some of the pages of The Daily in the days around the October 20, 1934 game against the Yellow Jackets.

As a student paper should do, their words focused on the situation on campus and it’s a pretty interesting tale.   Upon learning of the demand by Tech that Ward not play in the game, a group of students formed the ‘Ward United Front Committee’ and collected 1,500 signatures supporting their cause.  The petition read:

“We, the undersigned, declare ourselves unalterably opposed to the racial discrimination evidenced in the proposed exclusion of Willis Ward from the Georgia Tech game.  We support the slogan: Either Ward plays or the game must be cancelled.”

The United Front even reached out to quarterback Benny Friedman, who was coaching at the City College of New York at the time, hoping the legend would tender a statement in support of the cause.

The group scheduled a meeting for the Friday night (10/19) before the game, a time typically reserved for pep rallies.  The Daily wrote the meeting was called with “the purpose of  crystallizing sentiment on the Ward affair.”

The meeting, held inside the packed Natural Science Auditorium, was ugly. Daily writer Bernard Weismann described the scene:

Smoldering feelings on the question of Willis Ward’s participation in the Georgia Tech game burst into flame last night at what was probably the wildest and strangest Friday night rally in Michigan’s history.

Speakers on both sides of the debate tried to weigh in on the controversy only to be heckled by the other side.  The chairman of the event, Abner Morton, took the stage but was overwhelmed by “boos, clapping and ‘wisecracks’”.

Next up was a professor named Harold J. McFarlan who was forced to dodge “coins that were tossed at the speaker” along with the catcalls, and eventually he just walk off stage.   Morton then returned and challenged his hecklers to bring up a representative to speak their piece, which prompted “taunts of ‘yellow’” from the other side of the crowd.

Finally someone from the opposition group stepped up and argued that it wasn’t right to require Ward to play especially if he could be injured by the Tech players, and further, that the coaches had earned the right to say whether Ward should be exposed to potential harm.  The shouts and taunts from the crowd continued.

Breaking the hysteria was a gent named Sher Quraishi (fact: he’s the founder of that co-op house on State Street that stands today) who decided to tear everyone a collective new one:

[Quraishi] was the first to obtain a semblance of attention from the entire audience.  He branded the audience a “bunch of fools,” unable to learn from the mistakes of others.  “You with the advantage of a university education can’t even allow a meeting to be held until you are bawled out.”

Snap!  Things settled down after that and many left the meeting before it concluded.  Those who stayed agreed to formally protest the scheduling of the Jackets by the the university’s Board in Control of Athletics.

The Deal
The day of the game The Daily printed quotes from the key administrators in the athletic department.  Legendary coach and acting athletic director Fielding Yost told reporters, “I haven’t anything to do with it,” when asked whether Ward would play.   Chairman of the Board of Athletics Ralph Aigler echoed the sidestep as well, saying, “In the 22 years I have been a member of the athletic board, I have never had anything to say about who played; I am not going to begin now.”

Ward himself was reached and referred the questions to coach Harry Kipke saying, “I haven’t anything to say about it, you had better call the coach.”   An attempt to get a comment from coach Kipke at his home and at Barton Hills Country Club (where the team stayed before the game) failed.

A deal was struck before the game, and we know that Georgia Tech coach Bill Alexander agreed to hold out his regular starting end Emmett ‘Hoot’ Gibson.  There are a few accounts describing an all-night debate between Alexander and Yost (although Yost is incorrectly referred to as Michigan’s coach in many versions), and I’ve also heard that Gibson never forgave his coach for agreeing to such a deal.

There are various accounts in his Wikipedia entry as to where Ward resided during the actual game.  The Daily is pretty specific: he watched the game from the press box, sheltered from the “downpour which started with the opening kickoff and continued intermittently all afternoon.”   The Chicago Tribune also placed Ward and Franklin Lett ( another African American who is on the extended 1934 team roster but not in the team photo)  in the press box, specifically within the “broadcasting booths.”

Parting Shots
Several beautifully composed letters were printed in the Daily in the days after the game, generally venting their disgust over the entire incident: from the behavior on the students, to the actions of the athletic department for scheduling this game, to the Michigan Daily for its coverage and editorials.

Here’s an excerpt of one student’s view of the Friday meeting, describing some of the behavior as “Hitleristic” (keep in mind this was 1934):


One note, submitted by five students, was particularly poignant.  It blasted The Daily for its coverage of the controversy.  Two small excerpts, here’s the first:


And in further ripping the Daily, a few excellent questions for the athletic department:


Despite the sharp criticism of The Daily leveled by the missive above, the paper definitely did a fine job covering the temperature on campus that week.   Should they have dug deeper into some of the questions raised in the letters?  Probably, but I’m not clear on the type of access or control that they possessed at the time.  I don’t know if Arthur Miller’s draft piece still exists, but it would be fascinating to see what he wrote after facing the Tech players.  Was it squashed by the Daily brass?

In its editorial wrapping up the incident (and this was mentioned in the 1999 Daily piece on Ward as well as in his Wikipedia page), the Daily wrote:

“It was the peculiar characteristic of the Ward-Georgia Tech matter that everyone who touched it did so only to lose in respect and esteem.”

The auction of the Ward photo ends April 30th.

**Update:  This point (that we don’t hear about the stories where ‘good’ didn’t triumph) expressed better by The Joe Cribbs Car Wash:

For the past few years, one of the most tried-and-true feature story tactics from the likes of ESPN has been the “team from the earlier part of the century heroically stands up against discrimination.” I mean, who doesn’t love one of those stories? Easy journalistic money.

Of course, you don’t ever hear about about the stories where teams had the chance to take a similar stand and didn’t..

Yost’s Warning to you Drunks (1933)
1933 and the Dickinson Formula
1933 MSC Ticket Application
Harry Kipke and the Fall of 1934
Smoke ‘em if you Got ‘em (1935-ish)

If you read this site you know that Saturday is officially Willis Ward Day in the state of Michigan.  It is also not-so coincidentally the 78th anniversary of the infamous 1934 Michigan-Georgia Tech game.  I bet you didn’t know this: there’s a descendant of Willis Ward currently studying on campus in Ann Arbor.

IMelanieWard Photo met Melanie Ward, the grand niece of Ward (Willis is her grandfather’s brother), at a screening of Black and Blue at the U-M Alumni Center on campus earlier this year.  Ward (left) is currently a U-M senior and was kind enough to chat with me this weekend as we approach the day that will honor her great uncle. 

MVictors: What did you know about your great uncle before coming to U-M?
Melanie Ward: I knew that I had a great uncle who played football for the University of Michigan in the 1930s. I also knew a little later that Gerald Ford also played on his team. But I did not know anything about the Georgia Tech football game.

MVictors: Do you have any other family members who attended Michigan?
Ward: Just Willis and his sister-law, who is my dad’s mother.

MVictors: So when did you learn about the controversy about the 1934 Georgia Tech game and Willis Ward’s involvement?
Ward: At the screening of the documentary at the Alumni Center.

MVictors: Wow.  So how did you find out about the documentary?
Ward:  I don’t remember specifically but I saw it online. I saw the name ‘Willis Ward’ and knew that this was my great uncle. I saw the name of the documentary and I was like, ‘I don’t know about this football game!’.   I would have gone regardless but I was like, ‘Wow, I really gotta go to see that.’

He died way before my parents were even married, so I can understand why no one really mentioned it to me.  My grandpa, who was around his age, died when I was really young so I can understand why no one told me.

MVictors: So what did you think of the Black and Blue documentary?  What were your feelings right after you watched it?
Ward: I thought it was a really great documentary. I just really appreciated that there were people spending so much time and literally dedicating themselves of making other people aware of what happened and that they dedicated so much time. I was especially astonished to learn that Tyran [Steward] wrote his entire dissertation about it. That was the main emotion – just a very deep appreciation. And of course I learned a lot about my family history that I didn’t know before.

MVictors: One of the villains in Black and Blue, if you want to call it that, is Fielding Yost, who is still revered in these parts for all his work in athletics and on the athletic campus. If you don’t want to get into this I understand, but knowing the story, knowing how your great uncle was treated–do you have any feelings toward Yost and his involvement in the ’34 Georgia Tech game?

Ward: You know, I don’t have any bad feelings toward anyone specifically.  I understand how things worked and if we wanted to play Georgia Tech we had to make a tough decision.  I can accept that certain decisions were made.  The only thing that disappointed me is that it took so long for this to be recognized and to be brought into the spotlight, with the University of Michigan being such a liberal university.  Being so liberal and so emphatic about social justice and racial justice, we’re really big on that at U-M…it kind of disappoints me that it took so long for us to admit this happened.

MVictors: Do you have any plans for next Saturday?
Ward: No because actually I wasn’t exactly sure…I knew that it was going to be Willis Ward Day, but I didn’t know what [the athletic department] planned to do. No one really seems to know whether they plan to do anything. Maybe I’ll have my family come up and we’ll watch the game.

MVictors: Thank you!

[Ed. A big thanks to Melanie for chatting with me and for providing the photo.]

* Director Brian Kruger discusses Black and Blue
* Harry Kipke and the Fall of 1934
* Jesse Owns and Gerald Ford (1934)
* The Willis Ward Protests (1934)


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Seventy eight years ago this fall the U-M campus was set ablaze.  Students and teachers held heated (heated as in objects and insults being hurled) debates/protests over the proper way to handle the Georgia Tech game.

You know the story by now: The Jackets visited Ann Arbor but made it known well before the game that they would only play if Michigan’s African American end, Willis Ward, didn’t participate.  The saga, including background and the aftermath is documented in the documentary Black and Blue which you should own in your collection.

The largest group, the United Ward Front, was a group of students and professors with a simple demand: Ward plays against Tech or the game should be cancelled.  They gathered over 1,500 signatures in support and led many of the protests (clip from the 1934 Michigan Daily to the left).

Fast forward nearly 78 years.  The guys behind Black and Blue have a new petition —one urging U-M to honor Willis Ward on October 20, 2012.   You can sign on here:


The are asking U-M to honor Ward on Saturday October 20, 2012 because this will be the 78th anniversary of the Georgia Tech game.   On top of that, Ward would have been 100 this year and the Michigan state legislature is already expected to declare that Saturday “Willis Ward Day” throughout Michigan.

More details in the full press release:

Online Petition Urges University of Michigan to Honor Willis Ward at MSU Game on Oct. 20 – the 78th Anniversary of the Day He Was Benched Against Georgia Tech Because of His Race

ANN ARBOR, Michigan (August 27, 2012) – An online petition drive was launched today urging the University of Michigan to honor Willis Ward on Oct. 20, 2012 – the 78th anniversary of the day he was benched against Georgia Tech because of the color of his skin.

Michigan hosts Michigan State that day – on the very same day, on the very same field where Ward was banned from playing back in 1934.

The petition drive was announced by Brian Kruger and Buddy Moorehouse, producers of the 2011 Emmy-nominated documentary “Black and Blue: The Story of Gerald Ford, Willis Ward and the 1934 Michigan-Georgia Tech Football Game.”

They said the petition is in response to the reaction they’ve received from people who have seen the documentary or read about Willis Ward. The overwhelming sentiment, they said, is that U-M needs to honor Ward on the anniversary of the Georgia Tech game.

“Willis Ward was barred from Michigan Stadium because of the color of his skin on Oct. 20, 1934,” Kruger said. “As it happens, Michigan has another home game this year on that same date – Oct. 20. He was banned from Michigan Stadium on Oct. 20, and everyone feels it makes sense that he be welcomed back to Michigan Stadium on Oct. 20. We’ve heard from hundreds of U-M fans and others who have all said the same thing, and we wanted to offer this petition as a way they could make their feelings known to Michigan.”

The petition can be found at:


Kruger and Moorehouse said they’ll be spreading the word about the petition through state and national media; via the many Alumni Association chapters that have seen the film; through Facebook, Twitter and other social media; through Michigan student groups; and through African-American and civil rights organizations in Michigan and nationally. They will also be encouraging petition supporters to make calls and send letters and e-mails to U-M officials in support of the cause.

At the center of the story is a football game that took place 78 years ago. On Oct. 20, 1934, Michigan played Georgia Tech in Ann Arbor. One of the Wolverines’ best players that season was an African-American student from Detroit named Willis Ward. Jim Crow policies were a sad fact of life in those days, and Georgia Tech officials said they would refuse to play the game if Ward were allowed to play.

Michigan eventually gave in to Georgia Tech’s demands and benched Ward, setting off a wave of protests across the campus. The Wolverines won the game, 9-2, but it was their only win in a miserable season. The Georgia Tech incident destroyed the team’s morale as the Wolverines finished with a 1-7 record – the worst record in school history.

The incident remains the only time in Michigan’s proud history that an athlete was benched because of his race.

Willis Ward’s story had been largely lost to history, but it came to light again in 2011, when “Black and Blue” was released. Since then, the documentary has been seen by thousands of people at screenings around the country – primarily by Michigan alumni and fans. The film has also gotten widespread attention on TV, radio and in newspapers across the state, and Kruger and Moorehouse recently penned an op-ed piece on the event that ran in the Detroit News.

The documentary will also be airing on statewide TV on Oct. 21 (WGVU is airing at 7:30pm) this year.

In March, Kruger and Moorehouse spoke before the University of Michigan Board of Regents, urging them to honor Ward in some way. The Regents agreed, instructing Athletic Director David Brandon to come up with a suitable way to honor him. As of yet, though, no announcement has been made by U-M as to how or if they intend to honor Willis Ward.

Kruger and Moorehouse said it makes sense to honor Ward at the Michigan State game on Oct. 20 for the following reasons:

• The anniversary of the game – Oct. 20 – actually falls on a home football Saturday this year. It will be another six years before Oct. 20 falls on a Saturday again, and there’s no guarantee that U-M will have a home game on Oct. 20, 2018. It doesn’t make sense to honor Willis Ward on any day other than Oct. 20.

• Apart from anything his alma mater might be doing, Willis Ward will be celebrated and remembered throughout the state on Oct. 20 this year.

• The Michigan Legislature will be declaring Oct. 20, 2012, as “Willis Ward Day” in the State of Michigan. The resolution is being introduced in September by Sen. Tonya Schuitmaker and Rep. Bill Rogers, and is expected to gain unanimous approval.

• The documentary “Black and Blue” will be airing on statewide television on the weekend of Oct. 20.  (WGVU is airing at 7:30 October 21).  The PBS affiliates in Detroit and Grand Rapids have committed to airing the film that weekend, and it’s expected other PBS stations throughout the state will also pick it up.

• This year is the 100th anniversary of Willis Ward’s birth. He was born on Dec. 28, 1912. Ward passed away in 1983, but what better present for his 100th birthday?

“Everyone around the state will be learning about Willis Ward and talking about Willis Ward on Oct. 20 this year,” Kruger said. “In addition to the documentary airing on TV that weekend, it’s a good bet that every newspaper in the state and maybe even across the country will be running a story that day about the anniversary of the Georgia Tech game. We hope that the one institution that’s at the center of this story – the University of Michigan – agrees that it’s the right time to honor this amazing man.”




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16. August 2011 · Comments Off on Black and Blue – New Trailer For Gerald Ford-Willis Ward Documentary · Categories: 2011 · Tags: , , , , , ,

Check out the updated trailer for the Willis Ward-Gerald Ford documentary – looks to be outstanding (despite the gent at 1:51):


I understand from Buddy and Brian down at Stunt3 that it will be released in the September-October timeframe and like Bart Scott, I “Can’t Wait”.   Look for more updates here of course and I hope you will check it out.

For much more read my post on The Willis Ward Protests.

27. May 2011 · Comments Off on What I’m Wearing October 1 · Categories: 2011 · Tags: , , , ,

If you read these pages you know I likes me some 1930s Michigan football.   And you probably know I dig the Little Brown Jug.  

So you know I’m feeling this, recently up for auction on eBay (HT: Dan O.):

1934 Little Brown Jug Pin 

Fresh!    Have a great weekend.  

Related?  Little Brown Jug Lore:

Part I: What Really Happened in the 1930s
Part II: Spinning Myths
Part III: Getting it Right
Part IV: 2013: A Space Quandary
Part V: Red Wing Roots
Part VI: Is the Greatest Trophy in College Sports a Fake?
Part VII: Open Questions
Part VIII: Doc Cooke and the Real Origins of the Rivalry

Nearly three years ago to the day I submitted a mgoblog guest post talking about the 100-year Michigan football anniversary event held in 1979.  Former player Willis Ward attended the celebration held at Chrysler errr, Crisler Arena.  I mentioned this:

Willis Ward:  The African-American end and U-M track star was Gerald Ford’s roommate for road games and a member of the ’32 and ’33 national championship squads.  This man’s story deserves a full documentary or movie, not a blurb on a blog post, and it’s safe to assume he gave some interesting remarks to the banquet crowd.

A hat tip to my boys at UGP/Moe’s and MGoShoe for simultaneously sending over this link.  Pete Bigelow at AnnArbor.com writes that a local group is putting together a 10 part series covering Michigan football.   It’ll debut with this:

The series will debut with an episode on the 1934 Michigan-Georgia Tech game, in which the Yellow Jackets threatened to pull out of the game if Michigan played Willis Ward, the school’s second black player.

Ward’s teammate, future President Gerald Ford, contemplated quitting the team in protest of Ward’s exclusion.

Here’s a trailer from the group producing the films, Stunt3 Multimedia:

When can we expect this to come out?  According to senior creative director Buddy Moorehouse:

..the first film in the series ("Black and Blue: The Story of Gerald Ford, Willis Ward and the 1934 Michigan-Georgia Tech Game") will premiere in May or June in Ann Arbor and Grand Rapids (in a couple theaters, not on TV).

If you don’t know the Ward/1934 Georgia Tech game story I suggest you start here

The Willis Ward Protests
Harry Kipke and the Fall of 1934

Regular readers of this site know one of my favorite decades of Michigan football is the 1930s, having covered different seasons and events in eBay Watch and in the Little Brown Jug Lore series from those years.

If I had to pick one year as my favorite during the stretch it’s definitely 1934 which is ironic, as it’s arguably the worst season in Michigan football history.   I argued this point here and here, but in a nutshell consider that Harry Kipke’s team, coming off back-to-back national championships, finished 1-7, was shut out in five of the eight games, and scored a mere 21 points.  Fugly.

Despite the futility on the gridiron, the season is packed of historical treasures of major significance both on and off the field.  The next edition of eBay Watch features the auction of a program from the Ohio State-Michigan held on November 17, 1934, exactly 75 years ago today in Columbus:


The program features several photos of players, including a collage of the Michigan team including team MVP Gerald Ford:


The top of the photo features Willis Ward, the African American end who was at the center of a fierce controversy that played out before the Georgia Tech game a few weeks earlier that season.  For those not familiar, The Jackets made it known well before the game that they wouldn’t take the field in Ann Arbor if Ward played, spawning intense protests on campus in Ann Arbor. 

Eventually Michigan caved, sitting Ward after a deal was struck with Tech that required the Jackets to sit a player as well.  (It’s not lost on me that the 1934 OSU program features two white dudes shaking hands.)  The 9-2 game was the Wolverines’ lone win of the miserable season but came with a historical price.   These incidents resonated with would-be President Ford, a friend of Ward’s, who wrote a 1999 New York Times Op-Ed piece defending Michigan’s affirmative action policies:

“Do we really want to risk turning back the clock to an ear when the Willis Wards were isolated and penalized for the color of their skin, their economic standing or national ancestry?”

President George W. Bush also mentioned the Ward incident in Ford’s eulogy

The 1934 Program also features a photo of one of the most famous athletes in the world, a burgeoning freshman track star at Ohio State named Jesse Owens:owens

Owens of course knows a little something about race and discrimination.  He’ll forever be remembered for kicking Hitler squarely in the bucknuts at the Berlin Olympics a couple years later.  While certainly on a smaller stage, Owens did some serious damage in Ann Arbor on Ferry Field in 1935 and the Bentley Library details his exploits:

Ferry Field has been the site of many great individual performances in Big Ten track championships, none more remarkable than Jesse Owens’ efforts in 1935. Within a period of two hours, the Ohio State sophomore set world records in the 220 yard dash – :20.2, the broad jump – 26 ft. 8 1/4 in., the 220 yard low hurdles – :22.6 and tied the world record in the 100 yard dash – :09.4 seconds. A plaque at the southeast corner of Ferry Field commemorates Owens’ incomparable performance.

That’s rubbing it in, man.

The year 1934 also marked the start of a Buckeye tradition that lingers today like a foul odor: the issuing of gold pants charms to players.   Their timing was impeccable.  The Sweatervest’s website explains the deal:

Schmidt founded the "Pants Club", which still exists today as reward for a win over the Wolverines. Since 1934, each player and coach receives a miniature pair of gold pants for each victory over Michigan. The charms contain the recipient’s initials as well as the year and score of "The Game".

Not only can you pick up a copy of this historic program, you can even own your own pair of Buckeye gold pants, which some OSU alum decided to hock on eBay right now:

osu gold pants

This prize commemorate OSU’s 2007 and the seller even gives the initials of the original owner (D.H.) which are placed on each pair.   That’d narrow things down to ‘07 senior De’Angelo Haslam, freshman Dan Herron or yikes, assistant coach Darrell Hazell.   Didn’t mean that much, obviously.

The auction of the 1934 OSU-Michigan program ends November 19 and the auction of the gold pants closes November 20th.

* Follow eBayWatch on Twitter  A new tool.  I’ll blast about quick links to notable auctions.
* Harry Kipke and the Fall of 1934
* The Willis Ward Protests